Probably the most important thing to treat an injury is not to have it. Carrying out a preventive program is essential to avoid injury. The most frequent injuries to the runner occur in the lower limbs. Once the most frequent injuries of the sport that is practiced are known, in this case running, it will be necessary to determine the possible triggers of the injuries and if it is possible to put some kind of solution.
The risk factors for a sports injury may be intrinsic, which refer to the biological and/or psychological characteristics of the person, such as age, sex, morphological characteristics, muscular fatigue, muscle imbalances, poor proprioception… On the other hand, these factors can be extrinsic, which are related to sports, equipment, the surface where you train or where the sport is performed, footwear, weather conditions, etc.
stretch-cover pageWe will analyze some of the most determining factors when presenting a runinng injury. However, it is assumed that when a previous injury has occurred, there is a greater likelihood of recurrence. Frequently, professional and popular runners want to return to sporting activity as soon as possible and start training early enough, without having undergone a planned readjustment to runinng, after rehabilitation or even without completing it. This risk factor, previous injury, can facilitate the chronification of an injury.
The joint position is influenced by different receptors, although in preventive work the mechanoreceptors are the most important. These are located at muscle, tendon, ligament and capsule level. These mechanoreceptors can lose their effectiveness due to the appearance of fatigue and, as a consequence, a loss of the proprioceptive capacity of the joint position.
The persistence of proprioceptive alteration favors the appearance of a recurrence or even the appearance of a new lesion.
Proprioceptive work needs to be maintained after entering normal training and competition.
Lack of strength
Several studies show that a deficit of strength above the physiological one between agonist muscle and antagonist around a joint is a risk factor. This is usually what happens in injuries to the isquitibial or ischiosural musculature.
The stability of a joint depends on passive structures and musculature (active stabilizer). Altering the force will result in decreased joint control.
Flexibility, as a physical quality, encompasses joint mobility and muscular extensibility. It is one of the most important parameters to work to prevent the appearance of injuries, especially at muscle level.
When performing stretching, we must bear in mind that passive techniques have a predominant influence on elongation of the joint components and muscle fibers, while in active techniques the myotendinous component and the rest of the so-called elastic muscle tissue, areas that are really important to stretch to prevent injuries and increase sports performance. It is important to avoid prolonged passive stretching, due to the alteration this causes in the mechanical properties of the tissues.
As seen above, it is necessary to work on the different aspects (proprioception, strength and flexibility) to be effective in preventing injury in the runner. We can use this type of work as part of the training session or as part of the rest days.